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Bas van Fraassen: The Scientific Image


Below is a bibliography of articles pertaining to The Scientific Image , consisting of two parts. The first part was collected in 1993.
The second part is a
list in progress of items published after 1993, or just recently added.

      At the end there is information about pertinent collections of papers and a link to the new Preface I wrote for the Greek edition, which indicates some changes in my view (and writings) since 1980.

I would welcome additions for me to insert.

If you have any suggestions, please e-mail me



P. ACHINSTEIN, The Nature of Explanation, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1983.

P. ACHINSTEIN, "The Pragmatic Character of Explanation," in P. Asquith and P. Kitcher, eds. PSA 1984, vol. 2. East Lansing, Mich., Philosophy of Science Association, 1986, pp. 275-292.

D. ARMSTRONG:, 'Reply to van Fraassen's 'Armstrong on Laws and probabilities', Australasian Journal of Philosophy (1988), 224-229.

--, 'Reply to Menzies' Laws of Nature. Modality and Humean...' in J. Bacon Ed., Ontology, Causality and Mind: Essays in Honour of D.. M. Armstrong, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1993.

F. ARNTZENIUS, 'State-Spaces and meaning relations among predicates', Topoi ( 1991), 35-42.

F. BACCHUS, 'Against Conditionalization', Svnthese (1990), 475-506.

J. BIGELOW, 'Quantumn probability in logical space'. Philosophy of Science 46 (1979), 223-243.

W. BOURGEOIS, 'On rejecting Foss's image of van Fraassen'. Philosophv of Science 54 (1987), 303-308.

R. BOYD , 'Lex orandi est lex credendi' in P.M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker. Images of Science, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985. 3-34.

N. CARTWRIGHT, 'When explanation leads to inference', Philosophical Topics 13 (1982), 111-122.

--, 'Van Fraassens's modal model of quantum mechanics'. Philosophy of Science 41 (1974), 199-202.

P.M. CHURCHLAND, 'The anti-realist epistemology of van Fraassen's The Scientific Image', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 63 (1982), 226-235.

--, 'The ontological status of observables : In praise of the superempirical virtues' in P. M. Churchland and C. A. Hooker, 35-47.

-- and C. A. HOOKER eds., Images of .Science. Essays on Realism and Empiricism, with a reply from Bas C. van Fraassen, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985.

D. CHRISTENSEN, 'Clever Bookies and coherent beliefs', Philosophical Review, (1991). 229-247.

J. CLENDINNEN, 'Realism and the underdetermination of theory'. Synthese 81-1 (1989),63-90.

E. CONEE, 'Against moral dilemmas', Philosophical Review 90 (1982), 8797.

A.CORDERO, 'Observation in constructive empiricism: arbitrary or incoherent'?', Critica 21 (1989), 75-102.

R. CREATH, 'Smart, Salmon, and scientific realism', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62 (1984), 404-409.

--, "Taking science seriously", Synthese 62 (1985), 317-346.

Ch. CROSS, 'Explanation and the theory of questions', Erkenntnis (1991), 237-260.

N. DA COSTA et S. FRENCH, 'The model-theoretic approach in the philosophy of science'. Philosophy of Science 57 (1990), 248-265.

T. DEIBLER, 'Van Fraassen's (mis)use of Aristotle in theory of explanation', SW Philosophical Review 5 (1989), 55-61.

M. DEVITT, Realism and Truth (1984, Oxford: Blackwell)

D. DIEKS, 'Realism and empiricists in contemporary physics', Methodology and Science 26 (1993), 53-73.

C. DILWORTH, 'Empiricism versus Realism: High points in the debate during the past 150 years', Studies in the History, and Philosophy of Science (1990), 431-462.

A. DOBSON, 'Believing what we do not see: The case against van Fraassen's conception of observation', Dialogue (1991), 51-55.

I. DOUVEN "Inference to the best explanation made coherent", Philosophy of Science 66 (1999), S424-435.

B. ELLIS, 'What science aims to do' in P.M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science, Chicago, Chicago University

P. ENGEL, 'Identite', essence et tnodalite', Archives de Philosophie 45 (1987), 425-440.

J. FETZER, 'Probability and explanation'. Synthese 48 (1981), 371-408.

A. FINE, 'And not anti-realism either', Nous 18, 51-65.

M. FITTING, 'Notes on the mathematical aspects of Kripke's theory of truth', Notre-Dame Journal of Formal Logic, 27 (1986), 75-88.

J. FOSS, 'On accepting van Fraassen's image of science', Philosophy of Science 51 (1984), 79-92.

--, 'On saving the phenomena and the mice: A reply to Bourgeois concerning van Fraassen's image of science'. Philosophy of Science (1991), 278-287.

S. FRENCH, 'Models, pragmatic virtues, and limited scepticism: The three pillars of constructive empiricism', Manuscrito I I (1988), 27-56.

Y. GAUTHIER, 'Science et realisme' in Cauchy et Venant eds., Philosophy and Culture Vl, Montreal, Ed. du Beffroi, 1983, 193-194.

R. GIERE, 'Constructive realism' in P. M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science. Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985, 75-98.

C. GLYMOUR,'Explanation and realism' in P. M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985, 99117.

T. GRIMES, 'An appraisal of van Fraassen's constructive empiricism'. Philosophical Studies 45 (1984), 261-268.

A. GROBLER, 'Van Fraassen's metaphysical move', International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 5 (1991), 21-34.

G. GUTTING 'Scientific realism versus constructive empiricism: A dialogue', Monist 65 (1983), 336-349 ; reprinted inP. M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985, 118-131.

I HACKING, Representing and intervening, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

--'Do we see through a microscope? in P.M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker. Images of Science, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985,132-152.

J. HANNA, 'Empirical adequacy', Philosophy of Science 50 (1983), 1-34.

D. HAUSMAN. 'Constructive empiricism contested', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 63 (1982), 21-28.

R. HEALEY ed., Reduction, Time and Reality, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1981.

C. HITCHCOCK, 'Causal explanation and scientific realism'. Erkenntnis 37-2 (1992),151-178.

C. A. HOOKER, 'Surface dazzle, ghostly depths' in P. M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985,153-196.

R.C. JEFFREY, 'Judgmental probability and objective chance', Erkenntnis 24 (1986), 5-16.

KITCHER, P. and W.SALMON, 'Van Fraassen on explanation'. Journal of Philosophy 84 (1987), 315-330.

J. KOCKELMANS, 'On the problem of truth in the sciences', Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association, Suppl. 61 (1987), 5-26.

F. M. KRONZ, 'EPR : The correlations are still a mystery', Philosophy of Science 55 (1988), 631-639.

A. KUKLA. 'On the coherence of instrumentalism', Philosophy of Science 59-3 (1992), 492-497.

A. KUKLA Studies in Scientific Realism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

M. LEVIN, 'Realisms'. Synthese (1990), 115-138.

I. LEVI, 'Direct inference and confirmational conditionalization'. Philosophy of Science 48 (1981), 532-552.

P. LIPTON. 'Contrastive explanation and causal triangulation'. Philosophy of Science (1991), 687-697.

LLOYD, ELISABETH and CARL ANDERSON "Empiricism, Objectivity and Explanation," pp. 121-131, Midwest Studies in Philosophy, Vol. XVIII, Eds. P.A. French, T.E. Ueling, H.K. Wettstein. Notre Dame, IN: 1993.

A.LUGG and H DUNCAN, 'Critical notice of P.M.Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (1988), 795-804.

A. MACINTYRE, 'Moral dilemmas', Phenomenology and Philosophical Research (1990), 367-382.

P. MAHER, 'Diachronic rationality', Philosophy of Science 59-1 (1992), 12141.

M. MARINOV, 'Inference to the best explanation: van Fraassen and the case of the 'fifth force", International Studies in rite Philosophy of Science 3 (1988). 35-50.

N. MAXWELL 'Induction and scientific realism: Einstein versus van Fraassen', British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44-1 (1993), 61101 ; 44-2 (1993), 275-305.

T. MCCONNELL, 'Moral dilemmas and requiring the impossible', Philosophical Studies 29 (1976), 409--313.

E. McKINNON, 'Scientific realism: The new debates', Philosophy of Science. 46 (1974), 501-532.

A. MCMICHAEL, 'Van Fraassen's instrurnentalism', British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 (1985), 257-272.

B. MONTON, "Bayesian Agnosticism and constructive empiricism" Analysis (1998), 207-212.

N. MELCHERT, 'Why constructive empiricism collapses into scientific realism', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 63 (1985), 213-215.

A. MUSGRAVE- 'Realism versus constructive empiricism' in P. M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1985, 197-221.

M. NEUMANN, 'Fictionalism and realism', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 8 (1978), 533-541.

J. M.ORENDUFF, 'Why the concept of presuppositions is otiose', ,S W Philosophical Studies 4 (1979), 73-77.

RAILTON,PETER "Explanation and Metaphysical Controversy." pp. 220-252 in Scientific Explanation, ed. P. Kitcher and W. Salmon. Minneapolis 1989. Reprinted in The Philosophers' Annual vol. XII, 1989.

S. RAPAPORT, 'The modal view of economic models'. Philosaphica 44-2 (1989), 61-80.

J. P. REDDAM, 'Van Fraassen on propositional attitudes', Philosophical Studies 42 (1982), 101-110.

R. RORTY, 'An antirepresentationalist view: Comments on Miller, van Fraassen/Sigman and Churchland', in G. Levine ed., Realism and Representation, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.

G. ROSEN, 'What is constructive empiricism'!', Philosophical Studies 71 (1993), 1-36.

W. SALMON "Scientific Explanation: Three Basic Conceptions," in P. Asquith and P. Kitcher, eds. PSA 1984, vol. 2. East Lansing, Mich., Philosophy of Science Association, 1985, pp. 293-305.

W. SALMON, Four Decades of Scientific Explanation, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

R. SCHLAGER, 'Experimental metaphysics: A critique of Bas van Fraassen's constructive empiricism'. Review of Metaphysics 41 (1988-89), 789-814.

W. SEAGER, 'Scientific anti-realism and the philosophy of mind', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 67 (1986), 136-151.

Th. SIDER, 'Tooley's solution to the Inference problem', Philosophical Studies 67-3 (1992), 261-275.

J.J. C. SMART, 'Laws of Nature and cosmic coincidences'. Philosophical Quarterly 35 (1985), 272-280.

J. H.SOBEL, 'Self-doubts and Dutch strategies', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 65 (1987), 56-81.

E. SOBER, 'Common cause explanation'. Philosophy of Science 51 (1984). 212-241.

--, 'Constructive empiricists and the problem of aboutness', British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 36 11985), 11 -18.

A. STAIRS,'Sailing into the Charybdis: Van Fraassen on Bell's theorem', Synthese 61 (1981), 351-360.

W.J.TALBOTT, 'Two principles of Bayesian epistemology', Philosophical Studies (1991), 135-150.

D. TEMPLE. 'The contrast-theory of why-questions', Philosophy of Science 55 (1988), 141-151.

M. THORNTON, 'Sellars' scientific realism: A reply to van Frassen'. Dialogue 20 (1981), 79-83.

J. TOMBERLIN, 'Contrary-to-duty imperatives and conditional obligations'. Nous 15 (1981). 357-376.

L.D.TROUT. 'Theory-conjunction and mercenary reliance'. Philosophy of Science 59-2 (1992), 231-245.

P. TURNEY, 'Embeddability, syntax and semantics in accounts of scientific theories', Journal of Philosophical Logic (1990), 429-451.

J. VAN AKEN.'Analysis of quantum probability theory'. Journal of Philosophical Logic 14 (1985). 267-296.

M. WILSON, 'What can theory tell us about observations?' in P. M. Churchland et C. A. Hooker, Images of Science , Chicago, Chicago University Press. 1985. 222-242.



  • Alspector-Kelley, M. "Should the Empiricist Be a Constructive Empiricist?", Philosophy of Science , 68 (2001) pp. 413-431.
  • Alspector-Kelly, M. "'Seeing the Unobservable: Van Fraassen and the Limits of Experience'" Synthese 140 (2004), 331-353.
  • Azzouni, Jody "Theory, Observation and Scientific Realism ", British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 55 (2004) pp. 371-392.
  • Buekens, Filip "Observing in a space of reasons", ms. 1996; revised 1999.
  • Buekens, F. A. I. and F. A. Muller "Intentionality versus constructive empiricism", Erkenntnis 76 (2012),91-100.
  • Bueno, O. [1997]: "Empirical Adequacy: A Partial Structures Approach", Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 28, pp. 585-610.
  • Bueno, O. [1999a]: "What is Structural Empiricism? Scientific Change in an Empiricist Setting", Erkenntnis 50, pp. 59-85.
  • Bueno, O. [1999b]: "Empiricism, Conservativeness and Quasi-Truth", Philosophy of Science 66 (Proceedings), 1999, pp.S474-S485.
  • Bueno, O. [1999c]: Constructive Empiricism: A Restatement and Defense [in Portuguese], Campinas: Coleção CLE.
  • Bueno, O. [2000]: "Empiricism, Mathematical Change and Scientific Change", Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 31, pp.269-296.
  • Chang, Hasok [2005]: " A Case for Old-Fashioned Observability, and a Reconstructed Constructive Empiricism", Philosophy of Science, 72 , pp. 876-887.
  • Churchland, Paul M. and Clifford A.     Hooker (eds.) Images of Science: Essays on Realism and Empiricism, with a Reply by Bas C. van Fraassen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
  • Contessa, Gabriele "Constructive empiricism, observability and three kinds of ontological commitment", Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 37 (2006), 454-468.
  • Dicken, Paul and Peter Lipton, "What can Bas believe? Musgrave and van Fraassen on observability", Analysis 66 (2006), 226-233.
  • Fine, Arthur "The natural ontological attitude", pp. 83-107 in Leplin, Scientific Realism.
  • Fine, Arthur "The Scientific Image, Twenty Years After". Philosophical Studies, 106 (2001), 107-122.
  • Friedman, Michael Foundations of Space-Time Theories. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.
  • Hájek, A. "Agnosticism Meets Bayesianism", Analysis, 58 (1998), pp. 199-206.
  • Hanna, Joseph F. "Contra Ladyman: What Really is Right with Constructive Empiricism", Br J Philos Sci , 55 (2004), pp. 767-777.
  • Hilgevoort, Jan (ed.) Physics and Our View of the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Huettemann, Andreas "Position: Bas van Fraassen", Information Philosophie 3/2000, 68-73.
  • Iranzo, Valeriano "Constructive Empiricism and Scientific Practice. A Case Study", Theoria (Spain) 17 (2002), 335-357.
  • Kitcher, Philip and Wesley Salmon, "Van Fraassen on Explanation", The Journal of Philosophy 84 (1987), 315-330.
  • Kockelmans, J. "On the problem of truth in the sciences", Proceedings and Addresses of The American Philosophical Association 61,#1 (Supplement), September 1987, 5-26.
  • Kvanvig, Jonathan L. "A critique of van Fraassen's 'voluntarist epistemology'", Synthese 98 (1994), 325-348.
  • Ladyman, James "Review. A novel defense of scientific realism. Jarrett Leplin", The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1999), pp. 181-188.
  • Ladyman, James "What's Really Wrong with Constructive Empiricism? Van Fraassen and the Metaphysics of Modality",British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (2000), 837-856.
  • Ladyman, James "Constructive Empiricism and Modal Metaphysics: A Reply to Monton and van Fraassen",British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (2004), 755-765.
  • Leeds, Stephen "Constructive Empiricism", Synthese 101 (1994), 187-221.
  • Leplin, Jarrett (ed.), Scientific Realism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Leplin, J. A Novel Defence of Scientific Realism (1997, Oxford: Oxford University Press) ; see reviews by Ladyman and Rich in this list.
  • McMullin, E., "Van Fraassen's Unappreciated Realism " Philosophy of Science 70 (2003), 455-478.
  • Monton, B. "Bayesian Agnosticism and Constructive Empiricism", Analysis , 58 (1998), pp. 207-211.
  • Monton, B. and B. van Fraassen, "Constructive Empiricism and Modal Nominalism" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 54 (2003), pp. 405-422.
  • Muller, F. A. "Can a Constructive Empiricist Adopt the Concept of Observability?" Philosophy of Science , 71 (2004), 637-654.
  • Muller, F. A. "The Deep Black Sea: Observability and Modality Afloat" British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 54 (2005), pp. 61-99.
  • Nagel, Jennifer "The Empiricist Conception of Experience", Philosophy 75 (2000), 345-376.
  • Okasha, Samir "Van Fraassen's critique of Inference to the Best Explanation", Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 31A (2000), 691-710.
  • Psillos, S. Scientific Realism: How Science Tracks Truth (1999, London: Routledge)
  • Rich, Michael "Realism's new miracle?" (Review of Leplin 1997), Stud. Hist. Phil. Sci. 30 (1999), 511-521.
  • Rosen, G. "What is constructive empiricism?", Philosophical Studies , 74 (1994), 143-178; reply by BvF in same volume.
  • Russo, Federica "Salmon and van Fraassen on the Existence of Unobservable Entities: A Matter of Interpretation of Probability", Foundations of Science, 11 (2006), 221-247.
  • Salmon, Wesley "Empiricism: the key question", pp. 1-21 in Rescher (ed.) The Heritage of Logical Positivism.
  • Salmon, Wesley "The Formulation of Why-Questions," in his Causality and Explanation , Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 364-8.
  • Savitt, Steven "Selective scientific realism, constructive empiricism, and the unification of theories," Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 18 (1993), 154-165.
  • Schupbach, Jonah N. "Must the Scientific Realist be a Rationalist?", Synthese 154 (2007), 329-334.
  • Seager, Wm. "Scientific anti-realism and the philosophy of mind", Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 67 (1986), 136-151.
  • Seager, Wm. "Scientific anti-realism and the epistemic community", PSA 1988, vol. 1; pp. 181-187.
  • van Fraassen, Bas C. "Rosen on constructive empiricism", Philosophical Studies , 74 (1994), 179-192.
  • Teller, Paul "Whither constructive empiricism?" Philosophical Studies, 106 (2001), 123-150
  • van Fraassen, Bas "Constructive empiricism now", Philosophical Studies, 106 (2001), 151-170.
  • van Fraassen, Bas "On McMullin's Appreciation of Realism Concerning the Sciences", Philosophy of Science 70 (2003), 479-492.
  • Vollmer, Sara "Two kinds of observation: Why van Fraassen was right to make a distinction, but made the wrong one", Philosophy of Science 67 (2000), 355-365.
  • Wray, K. Brad "A selectionist explanation for the success and failures of science", Erkenntnis 67 (2007), 81-89.
  • Wray, K. Brad "Selection and predictive success", Erkenntnis 72 (2010),365-377.

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New Preface for the Greek edition of The Scientific Image, available from author: email